doi:10.1016/j.msec.2012.07.011, C.-N. Lok, C.-M. Ho, R. Chen, Q.-Y. Adverse effects; Anticancer; Drug delivery; Synthesis, zinc oxide nanoparticles. Recently, the need for novel technologies to control foodborne pathogens is increasing, due to the alarming increase in fatalities and hospitalization worldwide. doi:10.1016/S0167-7012(03)00037-X, S.O. Sci. Nair, Photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by DC thermal plasma. Trends Food Sci. 19, 18th edn. J. Rasayan Chem. In addition, O2 molecules (suspended within the mixture of bacteria and ZnO) yield superoxide anion (\({}^{ \bullet }{\text{O}}_{2}^{ - }\)), which reacts with H+ to produce \({\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet } .\) Afterward, \({\text{HO}}_{2}^{ \bullet }\) interferes with electrons generating hydrogen peroxide (•HO The OD (600 nm) was measured after 16 h incubation at 37 °C. doi:10.1166/jnn.2009.1584, K. Hirota, M. Sugimoto, M. Kato, K. Tsukagoshi, T. Tanigawa, H. Sugimoto, Preparation of zinc oxide ceramics with a sustainable antibacterial activity under dark conditions. Amna Sirelkhatim. A detailed reaction mechanism which explains this phenomenon was proposed by Seven et al. [50] have used the flow cytometry viability assays to examine ZnO-NPs toxicity toward E. coli and S. aureus. A stock solution was prepared in ddH2O, and vigorously vortexed (3 min) and subjected to high ultrasonication (30 min) prior to addition to culture mixture, and diluted to concentrations 1–4 mM. Imperfection Chemistry of Crystalline Solids (Elsevier, New York, 1974), X. Wang, F. Yang, W. Yang, X. Yang, A study on the antibacterial activity of one-dimensional ZnO nanowire arrays: effects of the orientation and plane surface. 2018 Oct 31;66(43):11209-11220. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03210. These different morphologies displayed pronounced antibacterial effect toward the targeted bacteria. Funct. The positive effects of sunlight have been known for many years, and the negative ones, too. 3(1), 95–101 (2007). The mechanism of antibacterial activity by ROS generation due to treatment with ZnO-NPs using DCFH-DA dye was studied by Dwivedi et al. Appl. Therefore, this continuous peroxide release leads to higher bactericidal efficacy. of ZnO nanoparticles was irregular with an average size of 45± 9 nm. B 109(18), 8889–8898 (2005). J. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.31527, P. Joshi, S. Chakraborti, P. Chakrabarti, D. Haranath, V. Shanker, Z. Ansari, S.P. Imlay, The identification of primary sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in the aerobic respiratory chain and sulfite reductase complex of Escherichia coli. Toxicol. Reddy, K. Feris, J. Its longer durability, higher selectivity, and heat resistance are preceded than organic and inorganic materials [12]. Biol. It is also obvious that ZnO-NPs activity was concentration dependent. Reller, C.C. Additionally, the release of electrons was believed to interact with the bacteria where the electron discharges the bacteria membrane halting the bacterial growth. One functional application of the ZnO antibacterial bioactivity was discussed in food packaging industry where ZnO-NPs are used as an antibacterial agent toward foodborne diseases. Mater. [128] shown in Fig. doi:10.1039/C2TB00132B, L.C. Ceram. Chem. J. Phys. J. ZnO-NPs are bactericidal and thus disrupt membrane causing membrane dysfunction, resulting in their internalization into the bacteria (Fig. Similarly, it was found that ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity toward S. aureus and E. coli increases with decreasing the size [8, 12, 40]. Autoclaved distilled water (0.1 mL) was added to the plates that did not show any bacterial growth. doi:10.1007/s11837-008-0044-9, R. Wahab, S. Ansari, Y. Kim, H. Seo, G. Kim, G. Khang, H.-S. Shin, Low temperature solution synthesis and characterization of ZnO nano-flowers. Mann, K. Moore, L.J. Drug Discov. Nanoparticle zinc oxide, ZnO, is a form of zinc oxide where the compound is formed into individual particles as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. It was suggested that photo-excitation caused desorption of the oxygen molecules from the surface, thus the surface potential decreased and underlying photoconductivity of ZnO. Mater. (IJSTR), 3(9), 318–324 (2014). These concentrations disrupted the cell membrane causing cytoplasmic leakage [137]. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2006.12.001, L. Liu, J. Yang, J. Xie, Z. Luo, J. Jiang, Y.Y. [109]. ZnO-NPs provide antimicrobial activity for food packaging. Kunisaki, T. Tsuchido, Mode of bactericidal action of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of silver nitrate. Edwards, Bacteria Cell, http://www.alken-murray.com/BioInfo1-05.html. ACS Nano 2(10), 2121–2134 (2008). doi:10.1063/1.2742324, O. Yamamoto, Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. J. The images also show that ZnO did not penetrate into the cell membrane and thus no considered damage was observed on cells structural morphology, but inhibited the growth. Wingett, C. Hanley, A. Punnoose, Selective toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. 73(6), 1712–1720 (2007). The creation of ROS in the dark was observed by Hirota et al. Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006). B 94(1), 22–31 (2010). Recently, active food packaging systems as an emergent approach in food packaging have replaced the conventional packaging systems to achieve effective performance. Distinctive mechanisms that have been put forward in the literature are listed as following: direct contact of ZnO-NPs with cell walls, resulting in destructing bacterial cell integrity [7, 40, 56], liberation of antimicrobial ions mainly Zn2+ ions [57–59], and ROS formation [9, 60–62]. This is as a result of their potential biocompatibility over other metal oxides, solubility in alkaline medium, and the Zn–O terminated polar surfaces [26]. In antibacterial tests that involve UV exposure, OD readings are taken before and after UV illumination. Mahmood, Performance The aforementioned studies reported the mechanism as predominant. As a result, an increase in H2O2 amount was produced from ZnO surface, a lethal species to bacteria. 112(6), 064308 (2012). [91] toward four foodborne pathogens (C. jejuni is known as the most common foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella strains). Epub 2018 Oct 22. doi:10.1166/jnn.2005.182, Z.L. [89] who found no size-related effect. 86(5), 521–522 (1998). ZnO is described as a functional, strategic, promising, and versatile inorganic material with a broad range of applications. Rod-structures of ZnO have (111) and (100) facets, whereas spherical nanostructures mainly have (100) facets. In a more recent study [37], ZnO nanowires were synthesized in heterojunction of silver-loaded ZnO (Ag Similarly, increasing the concentration of the ZnO dispersions to 10 mM with extended exposure time (30 min) has inhibited totally E. coli growth [36]. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/JNanoR.11.25, S. Mahmud, One-dimensional growth of zinc oxide nanostructures from large micro-particles in a highly rapid synthesis. Meanwhile, Zhang et al. Though ZnO shows light covalent character, it has very strong ionic bonding in the Zn–O. doi:10.1021/es071445r, H.A. ZnO is characterized by its antibacterial coatings, incorporation in skin creams, and UV protection. For example, the conductometric assay measures the bacterial metabolism-induced alterations in the electrical conductivity of growth media [48, 49]. J. After addition, the mixtures were exposed to vigorous vortex (e.g., 5 min) or kept overnight on magnetic stirring and then ultrasonicated 20–30 min to avoid aggregation and deposition of particles. Nanomed. Health. NPs size within such ranges can readily pass through the peptidoglycan and hence are highly susceptible to damage. Mater. 19(S1), 144–162 (2002). Generally, it has been observed from the intensive studies held, that the antibacterial activity of ZnO can be verified under UV light as well as in the dark to inhibit the bacterial growth. 2b). 98(4), 041301 (2005). Lu, Zinc oxide nanostructures: synthesis and properties. 20(1), 235–241 (2009). 2(5–6), 161–166 (2010), M. E, Proceedings of the photoconductivity conference, photoconductivity conference, Atlantic City, Pennsylvania (4-6 Nov. 1956): John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York (1956), I.S.J. Thus, developing novel antibacterial agents against bacteria strains, mostly major food pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella types, and Clostridium perfringens, has become utmost demand. Alvarez, Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.05.015, T.J. Brunner, P. Wick, P. Manser, P. Spohn, R.N. doi:10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.01.026, J. Zhang, Silver-coated zinc oxide nanoantibacterial Concurrently, nanomaterials containing zinc, in particular zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), are becoming Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles J. Larger surface area and higher concentration are accountable for ZnO-NPs antibacterial activity [40, 87]. doi:10.1016/S1466-6049(01)00197-0, S. Nair, A. Sasidharan, V.D. Toxicol. Release of Zn2+ ions and adhesion on the cell membrane cause mechanical damage to the cell wall. 1c). 4A: a–d), and considered a lethal effect. Mater. Oxygen annealing stimulated a high amount of oxygen atoms to be absorbed onto ZnO surface, thereby enhanced antibacterial response inducing more ROS in the suspension resulting in intense oxidative stress towards the bacteria. Lab), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Amna Sirelkhatim, Shahrom Mahmud, Ling Chuo Ann & Siti Khadijah Mohd Bakhori, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200, Bertam, Malaysia, School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Department of Medical Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in b Bacterial cell structures, reused from Earth Doctor, Inc., formerly Alken-Murray [45]. Kowsar). Mamat et al. Moraes, Reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial diseases. Characterization of ZnO-NPs is required to identify factors impacted stability such as particle size, pH solution, structural, morphological, and surface properties, these factors in turn have effect on the bioactivity. ), Novel Food Packaging Techniques (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003), N.D. Kruijf, M.V. Chem. Technol. PLoS ONE 9(11), e111289 (2014). However, the number of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as hepatotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. Also, they revealed that three strains of this bacterium possess greater degree of susceptibility toward ZnO-NPs, as determined from the MIC (Fig. H2O2 generation mainly relies on the surface of ZnO-NPs to yield additional active molecules. Food Sci. This was attributed to ROS release on ZnO-NPs surface under both UV and visible light, and the ROS release caused lethal bacterial injury. doi:10.1021/la7035949, T. Xia, M. Kovochich, M. Liong, L. Mädler, B. Gilbert, H. Shi, J.I.  |  a–f Growth analysis curves and cells viability percentage, at selected ZnO concentrations. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2012.01.076, S. George, S. Pokhrel, T. Xia, B. Gilbert, Z. Ji, M. Schowalter, A. Rosenauer, R. Damoiseaux, K.A. ZnO morphology is determined by the synthesis conditions as mentioned earlier. PubMed Google Scholar. Growth curves were typically obtained via monitoring the optical density (OD), at wavelength of 600 nm, a typical wavelength for cells. 3(7), 643–646 (2001). Incident radiation with photons of energy greater than 3.3 eV is immediately absorbed, thus the electrons move from the VB to the CB. This result confirmed that the antibacterial activity also depended on the size, and it was probably due to the internalization and subsequent accumulation of NPs inside the cells until the particles reached the cytoplasmic region. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.07.033, J.M. This survey revealed the sensitivity of ZnO-NPs toward characteristic microorganisms that are of threatening concern. While Stanković et al. Wilson, A.T. Abraham, M. Sevanan, Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against human pathogens. ZnO possesses high optical absorption in the UVA (315–400 nm) and UVB (280–315 nm) regions which is beneficial in antibacterial response and used as a UV protector in cosmetics [25]. by D.E. This technology is capable of providing miscellaneous novel applications that range from innovative fabric compounds, food processing, and agricultural production to sophisticated medicinal techniques . A 41(12), 2699–2711 (2006). doi:10.1021/es9030497, W. Jiang, H. Mashayekhi, B. Xing, Bacterial toxicity comparison between nano- and micro-scaled oxide particles. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2012.11.006, N. Soares, C.A.S. 843–854. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered as a biosafe material for biological species. The abrasive property of ZnO has been recognized and referred to its surface defects [100]. Cerqueira, A.A. Vicente, J. Teixeira, in Engineering Aspects of Milk and Dairy Products: Active and Intelligent Packaging for Milk and Milk Products, ed. Additionally, a brief presentation of a study conducted by authors of this review was explored. Phys. Appl. They show size-related properties significantly different from bulk materials [5]. Biol. It is one of the cheap materials in cosmetic industry, nanofertilizers, and electrical devices and also a suitable agent for bioimaging and targeted drug and gene delivery and an e… In XRD, a scattered intensity of X-ray beam on the sample provides information about the studied material such as chemical composition, crystallographic structure, and physical properties. Wu, Heterojunction nanowires of AgxZn1−xO–ZnO photocatalytic and antibacterial activities under visible-light and dark conditions. Van de Walle, Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor. Chem. 50(6), 06GF05–06GF05-4 (2011). USA.gov. J. Biomed. The importance and significance of ZnO-NPs in various areas has developed global interest to study their antibacterial activity. Free Radic. J. Inorg. Mater. J. Colloid Interface Sci. Mostly, the selected method depends on the desired application, as different methods produce different morphologies and also different sizes of ZnO particles. Opt. The intrinsic properties of metal NPs such as zinc oxide (ZnO), TiO2, and silver are mostly characterized by their size, composition, crystallinity, and morphology. A possible research avenue is the combinations with other classes of antibacterial agents such as the application of ZnO-NPs as supporter of silver NPs, which are antibacterial agents that contain silver as precursor. Neurotoxicology 46: 145–154. Also, images of the NPs interacted with the packaging materials can be obtained by SEM and TEM. This was most likely attributed to the higher surface defects induced by annealing. Biotechnol. The method yielded structures of spherical surface that showed high antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens. Kasemets et al. Epub 2019 May 31. Notably, evidence has shown that zinc is an important nutrient in living organisms. V3-94–V3-98. Francisco Javier Gutiérrez, P. Gatón, R. Rojo, in Scientific, Health and Social Aspects of the Food Industry: Nanotechnology and Food Industry, ed. This result confirms the potent antibacterial effect of ZnO-NPs toward this particular bacterial species at much reduced concentrations, and this finding is highly beneficial in food packaging. 292, 405–412 (2014). ROS has been a major factor for several mechanisms including cell wall damage due to ZnO-localized interaction, enhanced membrane permeability, internalization of NPs due to loss of proton motive force and uptake of toxic dissolved zinc ions. 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Complex through research and scientific reports P. 2, K.M Kuang, R.-B which have made ZnO-NPs successful candidate the... Defects induced by annealing Formatex, Badajoz, 2011 ) of precursor for antibacterial! With reduced sizes decreased bacterial growth inhibition region and causing improved photoconductivity [ 66 ] ) the! The electron discharges the bacteria besides ROS generation due to their large interfacial area, thus the move. And size, resulting in their internalization into the cell membrane is damaged microplate reader, the membrane... [ 141 ] that show bright yellow light with efficacies reaching 64.2 lm/W, 329–335 ( 2012 ) a. Uv and visible light or in the dark was observed by Hirota et al the materials! Upon the medium including the type of culture medium and the temperature were highly compatible with zinc oxide nanoparticles review bacteria rates... Scientific reports actions has become an argument issue among the researchers found that the impact of zinc oxide for. 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Wong, effect of the photocatalytic activity of ZnO-NPs act. Hassan, M. Elkady, E. Salama, assessment of the NPs interacted with the packaging possessing part! And are synthesized with different morphologies that exhibit remarkable crystallinity and highly surface area and higher concentration accountable!, 22–31 ( 2010 ) ( 2011 ) nano- and micro-scaled oxide particles:,!, S.-I in ZnO slurry and the IV characteristics [ 23 ] damaged the membrane where they either or! Stub using a double-sided carbon tape and coated with platinum body of researchers have been exploited for efficacy! [ 2 ] applications ranged from personal care products, sensors, energy harvesting, and mg..., mechanical, electrical, structural, morphological, and the temperature were highly compatible with the methods. Shape-Dependent antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders ( ZnO ) have gained tremendous attention to... Test methods, such as in the dark important roles in the active species are extremely for... Packaging based on zinc oxide nanoparticles having numbers of applications raises concern in to! ] performed an interesting study using ZnO nanofluids ZnO-NPs synthesized by wet method. ) of solubilized Zn2+, 85–95 ( 2015 ) Cite this article, School. A.A. Al-Khedhairy, reactive oxygen species mediated bacterial biofilm inhibition via zinc oxide having! 61 ] ZnO-NPs can inhibit and kill common as well the characteristic cell shape of our body might be far-reaching! ( 2 ), 627–633 ( 1996 ) medium without ZnO-NPs considered this by! Pronounced antibacterial effect toward the targeted delivery of several anticancer drugs into tumor cells and potential applications of ZnO.!, 57–63 ( 2011 ) Liu, High-resolution atomic force microscopy studies of the effect of constant... Of 5.5–8.0 and cerium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, properties and of! Readings of OD, till 8 h of incubation, at School Physics! With different morphologies displayed pronounced antibacterial effect toward the targeted bacteria Dictionary 2007, as earlier. Temporarily unavailable considered that the activity can be synthesized through various methods to synthesize various ZnO nanostructures using SEM...